Note-taking Versus Note-making

We get our students to write their own notes.

We do this because primarily we want our students to make sense of what they learn in our lessons. In the past we provided our students with notes that we wrote on the whiteboard, present them on powerpoint slides or print them on handouts. However, we soon learn that this approach only makes learning passive and transfer of knowledge difficult.

Secondly, we insist our students to write their own notes so that they have ownership. Their notes are unique as what they take away as key points from our lessons differ because of their prior understanding and knowledge vary.

However, Rick Smith has taught us that self note-taking even if ended up with good notes is not necessarily enough for effective learning. We learn that self note-taking can be a passive learning endeavour too. Rick offered us the idea of note-making and showed us that note-making is more active and focused activity where students assimilate all information they have written and take understanding to a (meta) higher level. He shared with us a number of note-making activities and we use them after we have taught a body of knowledge to help our students consolidate what they have learn from their notes.

Below are several note-making activities that we have used in our lessons apart from the one shown in the video above:

Summary

We carried out this note-making activity as a whole-class approach. We started the summary by writing the first two sentences on the whiteboard. Students were invited to contribute two sentence to the summary but writing their second sentence only after their peers had added their first sentences. Students had to ensure that their sentences provided a good flow to the structure of the summary for easy understanding. At the end of this activity, students were invited to review the summary to critique and query each other contributions.

Slogan

Student has to derive the essence of a body of knowledge taught and turn it into one short phrase or a slogan. A good slogan is memorable and durable. When a good slogan occupies prime real estate in a student’s subconscious, it aids the student to recall the body of knowledge he or she had learnt.

Questions!

We used this note-making activity as an exit pass for students to leave the class at the end of our lesson. We started by asking students to select only three facts out of the many things that they had learnt from our lesson and come up with a corresponding question for each fact. Students were then invited to stand up and approach other students (one at a time) to trade a question that they had come up with earlier. At the end of the activity, we asked if there was any question that the students were not able to answer correctly at their first attempt. This allows us to surface student’s misconceptions and address them immediately.

Translation

This note-making activity is useful as a starter activity when we have a body of knowledge to teach. We used this activity when we had to teach students a list of peribahasa or proverbs. We divided the class into groups and assigned each group to translate the meanings of selected set of peribahasa into English. To our amazement, the students were deeply engaged that we saw them taking turn to teach the peribahasa and correcting each other translation. This activity allows students to develop their baseline understanding of the peribahasa before we start teaching them to students

Acronym

We employ this note-making activity when we require students to bring into memory procedural knowledge. Students has to first derive key ideas of a body of knowledge taught before they could encapsulate them into an acronym. As with slogan, a good acronym is memorable and durable, and it is a effective tool to help students recall key ideas of what they had learnt.

We encourage you to try these note-making activities with your students. Good luck!

Teaching Lisan Using Theme From The International Friendship Day

We commemorate the International Friendship Day this week with the theme Friends Next Door. One of the many learning activities to engage students during the commemoration is to use the video above as an oral resource for lower secondary students.

We prepare lower secondary students for oral examination by familiarizing them with a set of thinking routines to answer a CONNECT and a CHALLENGE questions. A typical CONNECT and CHALLENGE questions are the respective first and second questions usually asked during an oral examination.

A CONNECT question seeks answer that connect to student’s experience as well as an analysis of that experience. A CHALLENGE question on the other hand, presents student with a challenge to solve. Students are expected to mention two categories of problem solver and what they need to do. To elucidate their case, students need to present a personal experience as an example.

For this video, we recommend the following CONNECT and CHALLENGE questions as well as their respective thinking routines. We make use of our Mini Monsters thinking routine cards during our preparatory lessons to prepare lower secondary students for oral examination.

CONNECT QUESTION
Adakah kamu mempunyai seorang teman sekolah yang berasal dari luar negara. Apakah perkara yang menarik mengenai teman kamu itu?

Pengalaman
Saya pernah . . .
Students are expected to describe in 10 sentences details of their experiences using the guide 5W1H (Who, What, Why, Where, When & How).

Perasaan
Saya rasa . . .
Students are expected to give two contrasting emotions to give a balance response, and explain why.

Pendapat
Saya berpendapat . . .
Students are expected to give the goodness/advantage and evil/disadvantage of what they have gathered, and explain why.

Pelajaran
Saya belajar . . .
Students are expected to present what they have learnt “to do” and “not to do”, and explain why.

Perasaan
Nilai yang boleh digarap adalah . . .
Students are expected to give two values related to their experiences.

CHALLENGE QUESTION
Bagaimana boleh kita mengalakkan para pelajar untuk mudah membuat kawan dengan teman sekolah yang berasal dari luar negara?

Kenapa Soalan Ditanya
Soalan ini ditanya kerana . . .
Students are expected to give two reasons why the question is asked to indicate that they are familiar with the issues related to the question.

Keluarga
Pertama dan utama, ibu bapa boleh . . .
Parents are the first category of problem solver. Students are expected to indicate what can parents do and elucidate their case with a personal experience as an example. 

Sekolah
Kedua dan sama penting, pihak sekolah boleh . . .
School is the second category of problem solver. Students are expected to indicate what can their schools do and elucidate their case with a personal experience as an example. 

Our Mini Monsters thinking routine cards is a prototype, and we are collecting feedback from teachers and students alike how to improve them further. Perhaps in a future post we will talk more about them and share in more details how we use them during our lesson.

Improving Oral Content and Organization Using Guides in Our Oral Apps

Students need guidance to improve their oral content and organization. For this purpose, we have provided guides in our oral apps to help students do well in their oral examinations. In the video above, these Secondary Four Normal Academic students made use of the guides in our oral apps to improve their oral content and organization.

Our apps Lisan 1, Lisan 2, Lisan 3 and Lisan 4 cover all the respective topics in the Jauhari textbooks, and are available free for android phones and tablets. Apart from the guides, students have access all the oral videos and questions related to the respective topics in the Jauhari textbooks. In addition, the apps help students to make an informed guess of the oral questions that the examiners may ask while they wait for their turn to be called for oral examination.

Please check out the apps below. We hope that you and your students will find the apps useful.

Pelajar Cemerlang Series

This is the first in the series of videos where students who scored distinctions in the June ML O level exams volunteered to share their success recipe. The videos serve as good motivation resources for future graduating students working towards ML distinctions.

Oral Videos On Topics from Jauhari Textbooks

We have oral videos on topics from Jauhari textbbooks for all levels. You can view our collection here: (Left panel) What’s in Store>Lisan 1/2/3/4 (Ex/NA). You can find oral questions for all the videos in our apps.

Work on NT and MLB videos are still in progress. We aim to have them ready by the end of the year, if God wills.

[Topik Lisan] The Dog: Hentikan Buli Siber Sekarang Juga!

RINGKASAN:

Pelajaran ini bersekitar mengenai sebuah filem pendek bertajuk The Dog yang menyentuh perkara-perkara berkaitan dengan buli siber yang diketengahkan secara simbolik. Filem pendek ini merupakan hasil kerja sekumpulan pelajar dari sekolah kami yang berjaya mendapat hadiah Perak dalam pertandingan SDMA 2017.

Pelajar: Menengah atas
Masa: 60 minit
Aktiviti: Menonton filem pendek, memberikan pendapat dan membedah teknik penyampaian mesej secara simbolik dalam penceritaan
Topik: The Dog: Hentikan Buli Siber Sekarang Juga!
Bahasa: Kosa kata berkait dengan topik
Bahan: Filem pendek

LANGKAH PERTAMA:

Guru minta pelajar memikirkan soalan-soalan berikut:

Pernahkah kamu mendengar perkataan ini: metafora (atau metaphor dalam Bahasa Inggeris)?

Pernahkah kamu mempelajari mengenai metafora dalam pelajaran Bahasa Inggeris atau Sastera Inggeris (literature)?

Apakah yang kamu tahu tentang metafora?

Guru mengundang beberapa orang pelajar untuk memberikan jawapan kepada soalan terakhir sebelum menerangkan bahawa metafora adalah kata-kata yang menyatakan sesuatu makna atau maksud yang lain daripada makna biasa atau makna sebenar perkataan berkenaan. Terangkan juga bahawa metafora digunakan sebagai perbandingan atau kiasan.

LANGKAH KEDUA

Guru melanjutkan pelajaran dengan menanyakan pelajar pernahkah mereka melihat penggunaan metafora dalam sesebuah filem.

Guru menayangkan iklan pendek mengenai penderaan binatang berikut selepas bertanya soalan-soalan berikut:

Apakah satu metafora yang kamu lihat dalam iklan ini?

Apakah maksud yang lain daripada maksud biasa yang ingin disampaikan oleh metafora tersebut dalam iklan ini?

Guru menjemput beberapa orang pelajar untuk memberikan jawapan.
Jawapan:
a) Anak kecil di akhir iklan (metafora).
b) Metafora ini menunjukkan bahawa haiwan peliharaan harus dianggap seperti sebahagian daripada ahli keluarga yang kecil dan harus dijaga dengan penuh kasih sayang (maksud metafora).

LANGKAH KETIGA

Guru beritahu pelajar yang beliau akan menanyangkan sebuah filem pendek dan minta mereka memikirkan soalan-soalan di bawah sambil mereka menonton filem tersebut.

Apakah satu metafora yang kamu lihat dalam filem pendek ini?

Apakah maksud yang lain daripada maksud biasa yang ingin disampaikan oleh metafora tersebut dalam iklan ini?

Guru menjemput beberapa orang pelajar untuk memberikan jawapan.
Jawapan:
a) ‘Anjing terbiar’ (metafora).
b) Metafora ini menunjukkan bahawa mangsa buli siber rasakan diri mereka tidak dihormati dan dilayan sewenangnya (maksud metafora).

LANGKAH KEEMPAT

Guru menanyakan pelajar apakah perkara-perkara yang berkaitan dengan buli siber yang mereka tahu sebelum menanyangkan perkara-perkara berikut di dalam bentuk slaid:

  1. Mangsa tidak mengenali para pembuli.
  2. Biasanya bilangan pembuli siber hanyalah kecil; beberapa orang yang sama sahaja tetapi gambaran yang diberikan mereka adalah bilangan mereka ramai.
  3. Orang dewasa tidak dapat mengenal pasti jika remaja di bawah penjagaan mereka sedang dibuli siber.
  4. Pelajar lain yang tahu mangsa sedang dibuli siber hanya membisu kerana tidak mahu masuk campur.
  5. Tindakan mereka ini menyebabkan pembuli siber menjadi lebih berani.

LANGKAH KELIMA

Guru membentuk beberapa kumpulan pelajar dan membahagikan perkara-perkara di atas di kalangan mereka.

Guru menanyangkan filem pendek itu sekali lagi dan meminta setiap kumpulan untuk mengenal pasti metafora-metafora dalam filem yang menerangkan perkara-perkara di atas. Setiap kumpulan boleh dberikan 1-2 perkara.

Guru meminta setiap kumpulan untuk berkongsi pilihan mereka dan menjelaskannya.

LANGKAH KEENAM

Guru menunjukkan pilihan beliau (di bawah dalam bentuk slaid) dan menjelaskannya.

  1. Mangsa tidak mengenali para pembuli.
    Jawapan:
    a) Para pembuli hanya dirakamkan dari paras pinggang ke bawah (metafora; 0:32-0:53).
    b) Metafora ini menunjukkan bahawa mangsa tidak mengenali siapakah yang telah membuli mereka di alam siber (maksud metafora).
  2. Biasanya bilangan pembuli siber hanyalah kecil; beberapa orang yang sama sahaja tetapi gambaran yang diberikan mereka adalah bilangan mereka ramai.
    Jawapan:
    a) Hanya lima orang pembuli sahaja dan mereka muncul di tiga situasi (metafora; 0:32; 1:11; 1:47).
    b) Metafora ini menunjukkan bahawa hanya orang yang sama sahaja membuli mangsa walaupun mereka cuba menunjukkan bahawa ramai tidak menyukai mangsa (maksud metafora).
  3. Orang dewasa tidak dapat mengenal pasti jika remaja di bawah penjagaan mereka sedang dibuli siber.
    Jawapan:
    a) Pengawal sekolah di pondok kawalan (metafora; 0:13).
    b) Metafora ini menunjukkan bahawa ‘anjing terbiar’ itu (mangsa buli siber) mampu masuk ke dalam kawasan sekolah dengan mudah tanpa sebarang pengawal sekolah yang mencegahnya (tidak tahu mangsa dibuli) (maksud metafora).
  4. Pelajar lain yang tahu mangsa sedang dibuli siber hanya membisu kerana tidak mahu masuk campur.
    Jawapan:
    a) Para pelajar yang berada berdekatan dengan mangsa ketika ia menuju ke tandas dan mereka menghilangkan diri setelah mangsa keluar dari tandas untuk menyelamatkan diri dari terus diganggu (metafora; 1:33-1:39; 1:57-1:59).
    b) Metafora ini menunjukkan bahawa pelajar lain yang tahu mangsa sedang dibuli siber hanya membisu kerana tidak mahu masuk campur (maksud metafora).
  5. Tindakan mereka ini menyebabkan pembuli siber menjadi lebih berani.
    Jawapan:
    a) Para pembuli mengejar mangsa untuk mencederakannya (metafora; 2:00-hingga akhir).
    b) Metafora ini menunjukkan bahawa para pembuli semakin bertindak berani kerana pelajar lain tidak mahu masuk campur dengan menghilangkan diri (maksud metafora).

LANGKAH KETUJUH

Guru meminta setiap kumpulan untuk membayangkan diri mereka sebagai produser sebuah filem pendek. Mereka diminta untuk memikirkan bagaimana mesej cerita dalam filem pendek yang ditayangkan tadi serta perkara-perkara yang berkaitan dengan buli siber dapat diketengahkan menggunakan metafora-metafora lain dalam sebuah filem pendek yang baru.

Setiap kumpulan diminta untuk berkongsi hasil perbincangan mereka.

LANGKAH KELAPAN

Guru merumuskan pelajaran dengan menekankan peri pentingnya untuk pelajar menunjukkan sifat empati dengan:
a) tidak melibatkan diri dalam buli siber dan
b) melaporkan kepada guru jika mereka mengetahui akan sebarang kegiatan buli siber melibatkan diri mereka (sebagai mangsa) dan rakan-rakan sekolah mereka (sebagai mangsa atau pembuli).

Guru juga menekankan penggunaan metafora dalam penceritaan supaya pelajar menghargai teknik penyampaian mesej cerita secara simbolik.

SEMOGA PELAJAR CIKGU SERONOK MENGIKUTI PELAJARAN INI.